Summary of the book of lamentations the story of the. Eichah lamentations judaica press translation with rashis commentary at. The book of tanach authored by jeremiah, lamenting the destruction of the holy temple, the suffering the jews experienced at that time, and the ensuing exile. It was written soon after the fall of jerusalem in 586 b.
He has thrown down from heaven to earth the splendor of israel, forgotten his footstool the sanctuary on the day of his anger. The author of the book of lamentations was attempting to show the fulfillment of the curses presented in deuteronomy 28. Abraham ibn ezra, the 12 th century exegete, already questioned the attribution in the introduction to his commentary. While the author of lamentations remains nameless within the book, strong evidence from both inside and outside the text points to the prophet jeremiah as the author. How enveloped in darkness adonai, in his anger, has made the daughter of tziyon. How doth the city sit solitary the short history of the desolations of the jewish nation, contained in the fiftysecond chapter of jeremiah, formerly stood as a preface to the lamentations. Lamentations 1 how deserted lies the city, once so full of people. Some view the last chapter of jeremiah as an introduction to lamentations. The book of lamentations is book of sorrowful songs or poems. Although the poems are traditionally ascribed to the prophet jeremiah, this is unlikely. The hebrew title has a much different meaning though.
And it came to pass after that israel had been carried away captive, and. We call this book lamentations because it is a collection of sad poems. Lamentations biblical studies oxford bibliographies. The reluctant prophets call and job description jeremiah and lamentations in his early twenties, jeremiah received gods call to be a prophet. Lamentations is read in jewish synagogues on the ninth day of the fourth month julyaug, which is the day of the destruction of the city of jerusalem jer 52. Blank of the hebrew union collegejewish institution of re. Like the book of job, lamentations pictures a man of god puzzling over the results of evil and suffering in the world. Free online bible library jewish commentary on the bible. The dialogic interaction between the book of lamentations and the preexilicearly exilic prophetic literature new yorklondon.
How like a widow is she, who once was great among the nations. You can find the best commentary on lamentations for you using the tools on the right side. The rabbinic targum of lamentations demonstrates how the targumist transformed the book of lamentations by absolving god of all guilt, declaring israels culpability for jerusalems destruction, and presenting the path towards reconciliation through repentance and rabbinic worship. Because of its subject matter, the book is also referred to in jewish tradition as qinot,lamentations, a title taken over by the septuagint the prechristian greek translation of the ot and by the fourthcentury latin vulgate. The jewish people read lamentations every year on the date commemorating the destruction of the temple in jerusalem. The book of lamentations expresses the humiliation, suffering, and despair of jerusalem and her people following the destruction of the city by the babylonians in 587 bce. Intro to lamentations biblica the international bible. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading lamentations 2002. The chief focus of lamentations is on gods judgment in response to judahs sin. Each chapter of the book is comprised of a poem making five poems in all. The book of lamentations was written by the prophet jeremiah according to jewish tradition. The book is composed of five poems that mourn the catastrophe. Early rabbinic interpretation connected the curse of child eating lev 26. The jewish community reads sepher eka the hebrew title for lamentations, literally, the book of how during the ninth of ab.
This summary of the book of lamentations provides information about the title, author s, date of writing, chronology, theme, theology, outline, a brief overview, and the chapters of the book of lamentations. Enduring word bible commentary lamentations chapter 1. His job description was to carry gods messages over nations and over kingdoms, to pluck up and to pull down, to. Jeremiah, also known as the weeping prophet writes this after the destruction of jerusalem by the babylonians. In his wrath he broke down the strongholds of the daughter of yhudah, brought them down to the ground, thus. In the manuscripts and printed copies of the old testament the book is called. Also, i believe berlin is a jewish scholar, so christian readers looking for help exalting christ from lamentations will have to look elsewhere. Read the text of lamentations online with commentaries and connections. The book of lamentations is a collection of five poems that serve as an anguished response to the destruction of jerusalem in 587 b.
Apr, 2017 this text is taken from chapter 1 of the lamentations of jeremiah, verses 1014. Lamentations cannot be the scroll that was written by jeremiah but was burned according to jeremiah 36, as the ancient sages maintained, because it neither. Because this last verse of the book is so negative, many hebrew manuscripts of lamentations end by repeating lamentations 5. Although the poems are traditionally ascribed to the prophet jeremiah. Chapter 1a all verse 1b all verse 2 twentytwo verses. The poems use the literary style of an acrostic where the poem is built around the alphabet 16. For this reason, a glass is broken at jewish weddings, to remember yerushalayim even at the happiest. The talmud the babylonian talmud, tractate bava batra 15a states that it was written by the prophet jeremiah, who lived at the time of.
Indeed, it is highly improbable that lamentations was composed by any one man, for the following reasons. This is a time of mourning for the jewish people, and we spend these weeks deep in solemnity and regard for the destruction of our holy temple. A commentary the old testament library kindle edition by berlin, adele. The talmud, that vast reservoir of jewish law and tradition, states. Eicha, the book of lamentations, asks important questions that address the theological crisis following the jewish exile. The description shows the miseries of the jewish nation.
It would be more accurate to write the title of the book as eikhah. Lamentations 1 niv bible how deserted lies the city. Lamentations begins with the hebrew word eicha how, and the book is known in hebrew as megillat eicha the scroll of eicha. Both jewish and christian tradition ascribe authorship to jeremiah, and the septuagintthe greek translation of the old testamenteven adds a note asserting jeremiah as the. See 2 kgs 25 for a prose account of the fall of jerusalem. In the tanakh, which is the jewish bible, the book is called eikhah, which means how and also happens to be the first word of the first chapter. Berel entered the guestroom to find a simple jew, dressed like a peasant, shoeless, sitting on the floor, crying bitter tears over the jewish exile. However, while job dealt with unexplained evil, jeremiah lamented a tragedy entirely of jerusalems making. Book of lamentations read, study bible verses online. Eichah lamentations chapter 1 tanakh online torah bible. The people who lived in jerusalem did not obey god.
It is a very emotional book in which the prophet expresses feelings of intense. In lamentations, the poet grieves, yet still has faithcrying out to god for mercy. If the book of lamentations fails to move god, it fulfills another. Traditionally attributed to the authorship of the prophet jeremiah, lamentations was more likely written for public rituals commemorating the destruction of the city of jerusalem and its temple. Lamentations with book summary versebyverse bible commentary. It is a very emotional book in which the prophet expresses feelings of intense loneliness, a sense of utter abandonment, desolation, desecration of that which was sacred, pain and suffering.
Eikha book of lamentations is the third of the five megillot scrolls of ketuvim. Best commentaries and books on lamentations logos bible. Reprinted with permission of the author from the jewish way. The name implies that the topic is expressing grief over something to lament. It is read on tisha bav, the anniversary of the temples destruction. Lamentations is set just after jerusalems destruction by the babylonians in 586 bc. This limited teaching experience coupled with the somewhat detailed study of the book in the classroom of dr. This date commemorates five catastrophes in jewish history, including the destruction of the first and second temples by the babylonians and romans respectively. Lamentations was almost certainly written in the sixth century b. The three weeks bein hametzarim are bookended by a minor fast on the 17th of tammuz and a major fast on the 9th of av. Download it once and read it on your kindle device, pc, phones or tablets. As jeremiah identified himself with the sad condition of the people under gods judgment so will also the lord jesus have compassion with israels.
A thorough scholarly introduction to the book of lamentations, including introductory comments on genre, authorship, date, and theology as well as a sectionbysection commentary on the entire book. In the hebrew bible it appears in the ketuvim writings, beside the song of songs, book of ruth, ecclesiastes and the book of esther the megilot or five scrolls, although there is no set order. Jeremiah was a prophet of the old testament who lived during, and. That deficiency has since been remedied with three courses, one an undergraduate survey, one a graduate seminar, and one a course in hebrew exegesis. In megillat eicha, lamentations, the prophet yirmiyahu records his impressions of the destruction of yerushalayim and the first beit hamikdash, and the exile of the jews from the land of israel. The book of lamentations is a collection of poetic laments for the destruction of jerusalem in. She who was queen among the provinces has now become a slave. Mention must also be made of isaac arama 143094, whose aqedhah, his commentary on the pentateuch homiletical in style, was the standard book for the jewish pulpit for centuries, much esteemed by the christian world, and is still much read by the jews, especially in russia and poland. Lamentations free bible commentary in easy english. Lamentations 1 bible commentary matthew henry concise. Although the hebrew text of lamentations is anonymous, tradition attributes the book to the prophet jeremiah. Using commentary from the targum, rashi, and ibn ezra, as well as contemporary sources. Without pity adonai swallowed up all the dwellings of yaakov. This text is taken from chapter 1 of the lamentations of jeremiah, verses 1014.
In the jewish liturgical calendar, lamentations is the festal scroll of. It also became customary, when the jews read the book in synagogue worship, for them to repeat lamentations 5. Jewish bible commentaries merrimack valley havurah. The book of lamentations has been billed as a natural supplement to the book of jeremiah. The book of lamentations has been taken up through history both as poetry and as an expression of boundless grief. The lamentations of jeremiah, old testament book belonging to the third. God wanted his people to take care of jerusalem and the special house in it. The septuagint the greek translation of the old testament gives this prefix. Jeremiah was a prophet of the old testament who lived during, and wrote concerning, the babylonian captivity of the. Lamentations 1 niv bible how deserted lies the city, once. During the 9th of av, it is a custom to read the book of lamentations.
The entire book of lamentations is poetic in its form. The occasion of these lamentations was the destruction of judah and jerusalem by the chaldean army and the dissolution of the jewish state both civil and ecclesiastical thereby. Some of the rabbies will have these to be the lamentations which jeremiah penned upon occasion of the death of josiah, which are mentioned 2 chronicles 35. In the middle ages, however, jewish commentators deemphasize this connection. The book contains five poems that depict the condition of the forsaken city of jerusalem which had been burnt to the ground and utterly demolished by the babylonians on the ninth of av in the jewish calendar in 586 bc, in contrast to the magnificent. Bitterly she weeps at night, tears are on her cheeks. The book is a theological and prophetic response to the destruction of the first temple beit hamikdash, in jerusalem, in 586 b. The targum or aramaic paraphrase of jonathan which dates to ca. The volume of the readers voice builds to the climax, which is sung aloud by the entire congregation. The book of lamentations, the sad prophecy of jeremiah regarding the destruction of the first temple in jerusalem and the subsequent exile of our nation, forms. Book of lamentations overview insight for living ministries. Encyclopedia of jewish and israeli history, politics and culture, with biographies, statistics, articles and documents on topics from antisemitism to zionism.733 276 996 1495 635 931 160 1251 611 470 249 732 352 928 459 737 1420 1092 825 1466 997 964 1335 835 41 148 1139 22 583 196 1442 457 793 172 1020 677 899 594 430 1243 269 559